Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Debilitating psychological condition triggered by a major traumatic event.


Plasma Na+ > 148 mEq/l Aetiology Hypovolaemic Sodium loss in excess of free water Renal losses (Diuretics, adrenocortical failure, etc) GI losses (Diarrhoea, vomiting, etc) Skin losses (sweating, burns, etc) Euvolemic Diabetes insipidus (central or nephrogenic) Hypervolaemic Enteral or parenteral feeding IV or oral salt administration Chronic renal failure Clinical features Cerebral oedema Dizziness, confusion, weakness Coma & death…

Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) or Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.

Horner’s syndrome

Clinical signs, classically of ipsilateral ptosis, pupillary miosis, and facial anhidrosis secondary to the interruption of the oculosympathetic pathway.