Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)

Life-threatening idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic drugs characterized by fever, altered mental status, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction.

Tropical splenomegaly

Tropical splenomegaly syndrome, also known as hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly, occurs due immunological over-stimulation to repeated attacks of malarial infection over a long period of time. Clinical features Massive splenomegaly (> 7 cm) May show features of hypersplenism (severe form): Anemia Thrombocytopenia Hepatomegaly Diagnosis Investigations Peripheral smear for malarial parasite Usually negative Serology ↑ Serum IgM…

Pectus excavatum

Congenital deformity of the anterior thoracic wall in which the sternum and rib cage grow abnormally producing a caved-in or sunken appearance of the chest. Aetiology Associated conditions: Congenital disorders: Noonan syndrome Marfan syndrome Loeys-Dietz syndrome Connective tissue disorders: Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Spinal muscular atrophy Develop pectus excavatum due to their diaphragmatic breathing Clinical features Sunken…


Permanent dilation of bronchi & bronchioles (due to infections and inflammation that destroy the muscle and elastic tissue supporting the airway).