Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease (LCPD)

Introduction Perthes disease (Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease) is an idiopathic osteonecrosis/avascular necrosis of capital femoral epiphysis of the femoral head. Type of aseptic osteochondroses of childhood ♂:♀::4:1, typically in 3-7 years History The disease was described nearly simultaneously in the year 1910 by G. C. Perthes in Germany, A. T. Legg in the United States, and J.…

Subcutaneous emphysema

Subcutaneous/surgical emphysema (SCE, SE) is when gas or air is in the layer under the skin. Aetiology Trauma: Fractures of the facial bones with sinus involvement Neck surgery Penetrating gunshot injuries of head & neck or chest Penetrating trauma to gastrointestinal/respiratory systems Iatrogenic: Anesthesia either during endotracheal/naso-tracheal intubation Laparoscopy—tearing of the tracheal mucosa during intubation,…

Fournier’s gangrene (FG)

Fournier’s gangrene (FG) necrotic fascitis (dangerous and rapidly spreading infection of the fascial planes leading to necrosis of the subcutaneous tissues and overlying skin) of the perineum. Older males usually involved UROLOGICAL EMERGENCY History FG was first described by Baurienne in 1764 and is named after a French venereologist, Jean Alfred Fournier, following 5 cases…

Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS)

Peripheral facial nerve (LMN) palsy accompanied by an erythematous vesicular rash on the ear (zoster oticus) or in the mouth.