Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID)

Spectrum of cognitive decline, caused by or associated with vascular pathology, including mild impairment in cognition: VCI; and dementia: VaD.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)

Inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination.

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

Introduction White-matter brain injury, characterized by the necrosis (more often coagulation) of white matter near the lateral ventricles. Also known as “encephalodystrophy”, “ischemic necrosis”, “periventricular infarction”, “coagulation necrosis”, “leukomalacia,” “softening of the brain”, “infarct periventricular white matter”, “necrosis of white matter”, “diffuse symmetrical periventricular leukoencephalopathy” Leading known cause of cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits in…

Plantar fasciitis/fasciosis

Introduction Overuse injury causing degenerative irritation of the plantar fascia origin at the medial calcaneal tuberosity of the heel as well as the surrounding perifascial structures. M/C type of plantar fascia injury M/C cause of heel pain (80% cases) Aetiology Intrinsic risk factors: Anatomic Obesity Pes planus (flat feet) Pes cavus (high-arched feet) Shortened Achilles…