Insulinoma

Rare, usually benign, neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas that can occur sporadically or as a part of the MEN-1 syndrome. M/C cause of hypoglycemia-related to endogenous hyperinsulinism M/C functioning endocrine neoplasm, M/C neuroendocrine tumour of the pancreas Salient features: Rule of 10s: 10% malignant 10% ectopic 10% MEN syndrome Nesidioblastosis rare in adults, more common…

Aortoenteric fistula (AEF)

Connections between the aorta and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Aetiology Primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF) (<1% cases) Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) Rare causes: Syphilis, tuberculosis, peptic ulcer disease, and malignancy Secondary aortoenteric fistulas (SAEF) (M/C) Aortic reconstruction¬† Clinical features Classic triad (11% cases): Palpable abdominal mass Abdominal pain GI bleed: Hematemesis/melena¬†(M/C symptom, 32-78% cases) Primary aortoenteric fistulas…