Malignant hyperthermia (MH)

Rare life-threatening pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscles that presents as an exaggerated hypermetabolic response to volatile anesthetic agents and depolarizing muscle relaxants.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)

Introduction M/C mesenchymal tumour of the gastrointestinal tract (80%) M/C malignant subepithelial lesions (SELs) of the gastrointestinal tract History: What is now known as GIST, used to be called gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle tumour: leiomyoma if benign, leiomyosarcoma if malignant, and leiomyoblastoma if with epithelioid histology. Tumours previously classified as gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumours have…

Oculocardiac reflex (OCR)

Oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), is a reflux resulting in severe bradycardia (decrease in heart rate (HR) of > 20%) caused by traction applied to the extraocular muscles (especially the medial rectus muscle), pressure on the globe, ocular trauma, traction on the conjunctiva, or occasionally by placement of a retrobulbar block.


Introduction Life-threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction, triggered by exposure to a wide range of antigens and involving multiple organ systems Mortality rate: 10% Aetiology Foods (eg, milk, soy, eggs, nuts, and shellfish) Medications (eg, antibiotics [penicillin], nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anaesthetics) Venom (Hymenoptera stings) IV contrast materials Latex Idiopathic (20%) Pathophysiology Result of IgE–mediated mast cell…