Environmental and dispositional risk factors for CD: Environmental and dispositional risk factors for conduct disorder (CD) and conduct problems operate at different stages in the lifespan. The importance of these risk factors varies depending on the developmental stage. For example, harsh and inconsistent discipline is more likely to be important in influencing risk during childhood whereas associating with deviant peers is more likely to be important duringadolescence. Along similar lines, temperamental factors in infancy may increase the risk of later CD whereas personality traits in childhood or adolescence may confer an increased risk of CD. Genetic factors exert their effects across all developmental stages. Furthermore, some risk factors might be more important for certain subtypes of CD; for example, genetic factors are thought to have a more important role in the development of antisocial behavior in youths with CD and callous-unemotional (CU) traits, with minimal effects of shared environmental influences, whereas genetic and shared environmental influences are equally important in youths with CD without CU traits. Some of these effects of environmental risk factors may be mediated through epigenetic alterations to produce the phenotype of CD, which is characterized by alterations on a molecular level, on a brain network level, and on a behavioral leve | Fairchild, G., Hawes, D. J., Frick, P. J., Copeland, W. E., Odgers, C. L., Franke, B., … De Brito, S. A. (2019). Conduct disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 5(1), 43. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0095-y

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