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Contrasting mechanisms of conventional antigen (Ag) [upper panel] and superantigen presentation (lower panel). Superantigen is not processed by antigen-presenting cell before being presented to T cells. IFNγ = interferon-γ; IL = interleukin; TNFα = tumor necrosis factor-α | Llewelyn M, Cohen J. Superantigens: microbial agents that corrupt immunity. Lancet Infect Dis 2002; 2(3): 156–62

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