Trichiasis

Inward misdirection of cilia with the normal position of the lid margin. Pseudotrichiasis: Trichiasis + abnormal position of lid margin Etiology Cicatrising trachoma, ulcerative blepharitis, healed membranous conjunctivitis, hordeolum externum, mechanical injuries, burns, operative scar on lid margin Clinical Features Symptoms Foreign body sensation Photophobia Irritation, pain, lacrimation Signs Misdirected cilia Reflex blepharospasm and photophobia…

Papilledema

Optic disc oedema secondary to high intracranial pressure (ICP). Papilledema is frequently bilateral & symmetric but may be asymmetric or unilateral Other causes of disc oedema: Inflammation Papillitis, Neuroretinitis, Papilophebitis, Uveitis Ocular hypotony Any cause Vascular causes CRVO, Diabetic Papillopathy, Uremia, Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy (AION) Orbital causes Tumours, Grave’s orbitopathy, orbital cellulitis Infiltrative conditions Leukaemias,…

Blepharospasm

Involuntary, sustained and forceful closure of eyelids. Etiology Essential (spontaneous) blepharospasm Rare, idiopathic 45-65 years Reflex blepharospasm Reflex sensory stimulation through branches of Vth Nerve Phlyctenular keratitis Interstitial keratitis Corneal foreign body Corneal ulcers Iridocyclitis Presentation Persistent epiphora Edema of lids Spastic entropion (elderly) Spastic ectropion (children & young adults) Blepharophimosis Management Essential Blepharospasm Botulinum toxin…

Retinal artery occlusion

Ocular emergency caused by occlusion of retinal artery with resultant infarction of the retina resulting in profound, usually monocular vision loss, and is associated with significant functional morbidity