Urethral diverticula (UD)

Epithelised outpouchings of the urethral lumen into the surrounding periurethral connective tissue (also termed the periurethral fascia).

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA)

Group of disorders affecting the renal tubules characterized by an impaired ability to acidify the urine and excrete acid.

von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL)

Familial neoplastic condition characterized by the presence of benign and malignant tumors affecting the central nervous system, kidneys, adrenals, pancreas, and reproductive organs caused by genetic aberrations of the tumor suppressor gene VHL.


Renal calculi caused by a disruption in the balance between solubility and precipitation of salts in the urinary tract and in the kidneys.