Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Presence of kidney damage, manifested by abnormal albumin excretion or decreased kidney function, quantified by measured or estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), that persists for more than three months


Aseptic dilatation of kidneys due to obstruction. Etiology Unilateral hydronephrosis: IDIOPATHIC pelviureteric junction obstruction (M/C) EXTRAMURAL OBSTRUCTION Tumour From adjacent structures (Cervix, prostate, rectum, colo or caecum) Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis Retrocaval/circumcaval ureter INTRAMURAL OBSTRUCTION Congenital stenosis Ureterocele & congenital small ureteric orifice Inflammatory stricture Following removal of ureteric calculus or repair of damaged ureter Due to tuberculous…

Nephrotic Syndrome

Characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and oedema (also, hyperlipidemia).