- M/C ocular opportunistic infection AIDS (25-42% cases in pre-HAART era)
- M/C cause of vision loss in AIDS
- Non-infectious occlusive retinal microvasculopathy
- Progressive, necrotizing retinitis
- Always bilateral
Painless, progressive loss of vision.
- Blurred vision
Immune recovery uveitis (IRU):After reconstitution of the immune system by HAART.
Blindness:Results from 3 independent mechanisms:
- Direct damage to the macula or optic nerve
- Retinal detachment
- IRU → vitritis, retinal membrane formation, cystoid macular edema, or cataract
Indirect ophthalmoscope (GOLD STANDARD):
- Cotton wool spots: Dense retinal whitening
- Pizza pie or sauce & cheese appearance: Perivascular hemorrhage & exudates in the retina