Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with functional impairments across the lifespan: The earliest impairments occur in educational and social domains, with children with CD frequently being excluded from
school or taught in specialist educational settings and being rejected by their peers owing to aggressive or disruptive behaviour. CD is also associated with a high physical and mental health burden, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder and developmental language disorders common comorbidities in childhood and adolescence and depression, anxiety and alcohol and substance use disorders frequently emerging in adolescence. Antisocial personality disorder or borderline personality disorder can occur in the transition to adulthood, along with serious criminal behaviour and gang involvement. Many individuals with CD become involved in the criminal justice system, and a significant minority are incarcerated. Individuals with CD are more likely than their peers to be dependent on benefits, to become homeless and to be hospitalized or attempt suicide. In addition, these individuals have children earlier, with more unplanned pregnancies, have more children than their peers and are more likely to display parenting problems, contributing to the intergenerational transmission of CD. CD also has a major detrimental effect on the well- being of the affected individual’s family members (not shown), with parents receiving legal sanctions or being socially excluded owing to their child’s behaviours. In addition, parents and siblings of individuals with CD are often assaulted or verbally abused in their own homes. | Fairchild, G., Hawes, D. J., Frick, P. J., Copeland, W. E., Odgers, C. L., Franke, B., … De Brito, S. A. (2019). Conduct disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 5(1), 43. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0095-y

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