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Internal Medicine

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)

Cover image: Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common type and is characterized by dilation and impaired contraction of one or both ventricles. | Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disorder with autosomal-dominant in­heritance but variable penetrance. | Restrictive cardiomyopathy results from fibrosis or infiltrative disease of the myocardium, with the most frequent cause being amyloidosis. | Medcomic/Jorge Muniz

Introduction

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart becomes enlarged and cannot pump blood efficiently.

  • Systolic dysfunction

Aetiology

  • Idiopathic (M/C cause)
  • Genetic conditions:
    • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    • Hemochromatosis
  • Infections:
    • Coxsackievirus B: Myocarditis
    • Chagas disease (protozoal infection)
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Drugs:
    • Chemotherapy agents:
      • Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin
    • Cocaine
  • Wet beriberi
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy
    • Due to pregnancy-associated hypertension

Pathophysiology

dilated-cardiomyopathy
The Calgary Guide | http://calgaryguide.ucalgary.ca/

Management

  • Left ventricle assist device (LVAD)
  • Heart transplant

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