- Classified under dissociative disorders.
Dissociative disorders:Dissociation often begins in childhood and can occur in adult life as a normal adaptive measure when danger or trauma is encountered; the dissociated state presumably enables the individual to tolerate the circumstances. Dissociation becomes pathological when the individual is unable to control when and where it occurs or when the adaptive measure becomes generalized to other situations and circumstances, or when it persists beyond the presence of danger.
- Dissociative amnesia
- Dissociative fugue
- Dissociative identity disorder
- Depersonalization-derealization syndrome (DDS)
- Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified
- Severe stress
- Marijuana and hallucinogen ingestion
- Childhood interpersonal trauma (esp. emotional maltreatment)
- Depersonalization: Sensation of being detached from one’s body, often associated with feelings of loss of control over one’s own body, actions, or thoughts
- Derealization: Altered perception of one’s surroundings that is experienced as unreal
Brain imaging studies:
- Widespread alterations in metabolic activity in the sensory association cortex, as well as prefrontal hyperactivation and limbic inhibition in response to aversive stimuli.
- Depersonalisation disorder has also been associated with autonomic blunting and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation.
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
- Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI)