Clinical examination of saccades

Clinical examination of saccades: Spontaneous saccades that are triggered by visual or acoustic stimuli should be studied first. Then the patient should be asked to switch his/her gaze between two horizontal and two vertical targets. The velocity and accuracy of the saccades should be observed, and whether they are conjugate. In healthy subjects, the target will be reached immediately or will be made by one correctional saccade. Generally slower accades, which are usually accompanied by hypometric saccades, occur in neurodegenerative disorders, for example. Slowed horizontal saccades are usually observed in pontine brainstem lesions and slowed vertical saccades in midbrain lesions. Hypermetric saccades, which are recognized by a corrective saccade back to the target, are found in cerebellar lesions. The pathognomonic sign of internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a slowed adducent saccade ipsilaterally to the defect of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. | Strupp, M., Hüfner, K., Sandmann, R., Zwergal, A., Dieterich, M., Jahn, K., & Brandt, T. (2011). Central oculomotor disturbances and nystagmus: a window into the brainstem and cerebellum. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 108(12), 197–204. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2011.0197

Clinical examination of saccades

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