Eight edition TNM categories. T is categorized as Tis: high-grade dysplasia (HGD). T1 is cancer that invades the lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, or submucosa and is subcategorized into T1a (cancer that invades the lamina propria or muscularis mucosae) and T1b (cancer that invades the submucosa); T2 is cancer that invades the muscularis propria; T3 is cancer that invades the adventitia; T4 is cancer that invades the local structures and is subcategorized as T4a (cancer that invades adjacent structures such as the pleura, pericardium, azygos vein, diaphragm, or peritoneum) and T4b (cancer that invades the major adjacent structures, such as the aorta, vertebral body, or trachea). N is categorized as N0 (no regional lymph node metastasis), N1 (regional lymph node metastases involving one to two nodes), N2 (regional lymph node metastases involving three to six nodes), and N3 (regional lymph node metastases involving seven or more nodes). M is categorized as M0 (no distant metastasis) and M1 (distant metastasis). | Thomas et al. Cancer of the Esophagus and Esophagogastric Junction: An Eighth Edition Staging Primer. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, vol 12, n 1: 36-42 (2016).

Leave a Reply