- M/C benign tumour in women under 30 years of age (2.2% in population)
- Accounts for 68% of all breast masses and 44–94% of biopsied breast lesions
- M/C breast masses in adolescents.
- Although fibroadenomas are benign breast masses, women with fibroadenomas are at a 2.17 times increased risk for breast cancer.
- Simple fibroadenoma (M/C subtype, 70-90%)
- Giant juvenile fibroadenomas (rare, 0.5–2%): Rapidly enlarging encapsulated fibroadenoma > 5 cm or > 500 g, or displacing at least 4/5 of breast
- M/C cause of unilateral macromastia in adolescent women.
- Multicentric fibroadenomas (10–25%): Multiple fibroadenomas occurring in different quadrants of the breast
Oestrogen influences the development of fibroadenomas
- Young age (<35 years old) (M/imp risk factor)
- Self-breast examination
- Prior history of benign breast disease
- Body mass index
- Oestrogen-progesterone oral contraceptive before menopause
- Increased number of live births
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
- Maffucci syndrome
- Cowden syndrome
Fibroadenomas can range from asymptomatic masses to painful and rapidly growing tumors that can cause significant esthetic distortions of the breast. Some fibroadenomas may remain dormant without any change in size. Others may grow slowly in size. Overall, most fibroadenomas decrease in size as they lose cellularity, infarct with resultant calcification and hyalinization. In the adolescent population, 10%–40% of fibroadenomas spontaneously regress.
Physical examination:A fibroadenoma is most often detected incidentally during a medical examination or during self-examination, usually as a discrete solitary breast mass of 1 to 2 cm.
- Non-tender/painless mass
- Rapidly growing solid lump with rubbery consistency and regular borders.
- USG (<40 years)
- Mammography (>40 years) : Popcorn calcifications may be seen
Breast tissue biopsy:The histological diagnostic features of fibroadenoma can be described as sheets of uniformly distributed epithelial cells that are typically arranged in a honeycomb pattern. There is a presence of foam cells and apocrine cells and an absence of excessive mitotic activity or anaplasia. Calcification may also be present. The basement membrane also remains intact in fibroadenoma which reflects its benign feature.
- FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology)
- Stereotactic core biopsy (older patients)
Conservative management:Includes clinical observation with monitoring over 2-3 months. A change in character or growth in the mass requires further evaluation with breast imaging, utilizing primarily directed breast ultrasound in the adolescent population. With a typical sonographic appearance, conservative management with short-term follow-up exam and ultrasound as indicated, usually at 6-, 12-, and 24-month intervals. Alternatively, a core needle biopsy with ultrasound guidance can be performed for tissue diagnosis.
Surgical management:Indications include a rapidly enlarging breast mass, fibroadenoma or mass > 5 cm, or a breast mass causing distortion of the breast architecture with associated skin changes. Other factors that may prompt surgical excision include localized discomfort and interval growth.