Schema shows mechanism of pleural effusion development in pneumonia. Initial bacterial infection causes local inflammatory reaction resulting in increased capillary microvascular permeability and a rapid outpouring of fluid containing inflammatory cells into the pleural space. Comorbidities such as heart failure also further contribute to interstitial edema. IL-8, interleukin 8; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. | McCauley, L., & Dean, N. (2015). Pneumonia and empyema: causal, casual or unknown. Journal of thoracic disease, 7(6), 992–998. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.04.36

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