Schematic diagram depicting cortical and optokinetic pathways

Schematic diagram depicting cortical and optokinetic pathways: Cortical input to temporally directed movement,which is present only in frontal-eyed animals, requires the establishmentof normal binocular cortical connections. This input is absent in humans withcongenital strabismus. Direct crossed pathways from the eye to the nucleusof the optic tract provide nasalward subcortical optokinetic responses evenwhen binocular cortical connections are absent (R and L represent monocularcortical cells corresponding to the right and left eyes, respectively). Note: Nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) relays horizontal visuo-vestibularinformation to the vestibular nucleus (VN), where it is integrated with horizontalvestibular input from the labyrinths to establish horizontal extraocular muscletonus. LGN indicates lateral geniculate nucleus; CC, corpus callosum; V1,abducens nucleus; III, oculomotor nucleus; LR, lateral rectus muscle; MR,medial rectus muscle; AC, anterior canal; PC, posterior canal; and HC, horizontalcanal. | Brodsky, M. C., & Tusa, R. J. (2004). Latent Nystagmus: Vestibular Nystagmus With a Twist. Archives of Ophthalmology, 122(2), 202–209. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.122.2.202

Schematic diagram depicting cortical and optokinetic pathways

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