Practical CSA Management in Patients With Heart Failure: Current treatment strategies for central sleep apnea (CSA) focus on either improving heart failure (HF) or reducing CSA itself. ACE-I = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; SDB = sleep-disordered breathing; Sxs = symptoms. | Costanzo, M. R., Khayat, R., Ponikowski, P., Augostini, R., Stellbrink, C., Mianulli, M., & Abraham, W. T. (2015). Mechanisms and clinical consequences of untreated central sleep apnea in heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 65(1), 72–84.

Leave a Reply