Top, A: An example of a patient receiving high-dose opioid medication for back pain experiencing repetitive central apneas as demonstrated by a lack of movement of respiratory effort bands (both abdominal and thoracic) with associated oxygen desaturations. Bottom, B: Marked improvement in SDB following gradual dose reduction of opioid medication. Sao2 = arterial oxygen saturation | Eckert, D. J., Jordan, A. S., Merchia, P., & Malhotra, A. (2007). Central sleep apnea: Pathophysiology and treatment. Chest, 131(2), 595–607.

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