Pathogenesis of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The oesophageal mucosal is exposed to repeated insult (tobacco, alcohol, hot liquids, reflux containing acid or bile) which results in changes to the squamous oesophageal mucosa. Molecular changes also accumulate ultimately leading to a malignant phenotype. In OSCC squamous hyperplasia precedes low and high grade squamous dysplasia which then develops into invasive cancer. In OAC, a metaplastic epithelium containing intestinal metaplasia is transformed through low and high grade dysplasia to invasive cancer. | Smyth, E. C., Lagergren, J., Fitzgerald, R. C., Lordick, F., Shah, M. A., Lagergren, P., & Cunningham, D. (2017). Oesophageal cancer. Nature Reviews. Disease Primers, 3, 17048.

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