Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA are both indicators of ongoing HBV infection. In the majority of infections, both markers are detected. However, in 5–15% of cases, in part depending on genotype, HBsAg is detected but not HBV DNA. This situation corresponds to infections with very low (undetectable) levels of viral DNA. The presence of HBV DNA without detectable HBsAg is the main indicator of OBI. Depending on prevalent genotype and sensitivity of the genomic amplification assay, 5–10% of individuals having been in contact with HBV carry OBI. OBI, occult HBV infection. | Allain J-P, Opare-Sem O. Screening and diagnosis of HBV in low-income and middle-income countries. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol [Internet]. 2016 Sep 14 [cited 2017 Apr 13];13(11):643–53. Available from:

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