Esophageal varices

Extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower-third of the oesophagus.

Barrett’s Oesophagus

Pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal nonkeratinized squamous epithelium into metaplastic nonciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells.


Neurodegenerative motility disorder of the oesophagus resulting in deranged oesophageal peristalsis and loss of lower oesophageal sphincter function.