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Proposed pathogenesis of Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction in relapsing fever. PMNs = polymorphonuclear leukocytes; TNF = tumor necrosis factor; IL-6 = interleukin-6. | Butler T. (2017). The Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction After Antibiotic Treatment of Spirochetal Infections: A Review of Recent Cases and Our Understanding of Pathogenesis. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 96(1), 46–52. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0434

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