- M/C form of reflex syncope & syncope overall (⅓ cases)
- M/C form of syncope in adults
Syncope:Transient and self-terminating loss of consciousness (LOC) with rapid onset, short duration combined with spontaneous, prompt and complete recovery.
Reflex syncope:Syncope resulting from a failure in autoregulation of blood pressure, and ultimately, in cerebral perfusion pressure resulting in transient loss of consciousness.
Typical VVS:Diagnosed when loss of consciousness (LOC) is precipitated by triggers as strong emotion/fear or prolonged standing and is associated to autonomic prodromes (pallor, sweating, nausea, abdominal discomfort)
Non-typical VVS:Includes episodes of LOC without any evident trigger and without (or only minimal) autonomic prodromes and can be diagnosed when LOC is induced during tilt testing in the absence of other competing diagnosis.
Characterized by a reflex activation triggering a rapid decrease in heartbeat and a reduction of vascular tone. Activation of this reflex mechanism provokes bradycardia, vasodilatation and hypotension. The main trigger for this reflex loops is a reduction in venous return during upright position.
Symptom onset during standing, light-headedness and full recovery after a few minutes.
- Brief loss of consciousness
Symptoms before fainting:Caused by reduced cerebral perfusion
- Fatigue, weakness, dizziness, wetness of the skin, dimming of vision, and sometimes tinnitus and complete loss of vision